“A Lot of Live Wires in the Room”

Jon Quitslund

I have two topics in this essay; maybe I should call them ‘areas of interest’ rather than topics.  I want to write from my impressions at the end of the six ‘Listening Sessions’ that have brought groups of citizens into the process of updating our Comprehensive Plan.  I also want to engage in a sort of dialogue with an essay by Wendell Berry that I find pertinent to our planning process.

I’ll take up the second subject first.  The latest issue of YES! magazine (Spring 2015) arrived recently, and when I saw Wendell Berry’s name on the cover I went straight to his essay.  (“Revolution Starts Small and Close to Home” excerpts passages from two essays in a new book, Our Only World: Ten Essays, which I may need to add to my long shelf of Berry’s books of fiction, essays, and poetry.)

As you may know, Wendell Berry writes from a place in rural Kentucky where he has deep roots.  Although his perspective on the world is different from mine, I find that the wisdom he draws from his experience partakes of universal and eminently useful truth.  Even when he surprises me with what seems to be an obtuse opinion, I stop to ponder the idea: maybe I missed something, or maybe I’ve been on the wrong track.

In this essay he takes up the momentous subject of climate change, and stubbornly refuses to get excited about it.  That’s refreshing and paradoxical.  Who can justify a refusal to plan for a future shaped by the consequences (environmental, ecological, economic, cultural, geographical) of climate change?  Well, Wendell Berry can.

I can’t agree, but I can see his point, and on reflection, I take it seriously.  His basic message is this: we live in the present, informed by historical experience that helps us to understand our current problems and opportunities.  We can’t know the future, and experience reminds us that many of our educated guesses about what the future holds (not to mention our worst fears) turn out to be mistaken.  So preoccupation with the future, with the enormity of the problems the world will face in coming decades, is itself a problem in need of a radical remedy.

Here’s a piece of what he wrote:

We can begin backing out of the future into the present, where we are alive, where we belong. To the extent that we have moved out of the future, we also have moved out of ‘the environment’ into the actual places where we actually are living.

     If, on the contrary, we have our minds set in the future, where we are sure that climate change is going to play hell with the environment, we have entered into a convergence of abstractions that make it difficult to think or do anything in particular. If we think the future damage of climate change to the environment is a big problem only solvable by a big solution, then thinking or doing something in particular becomes more difficult, perhaps impossible.

Berry makes a useful distinction between “prediction” and “provision”: “To provide, literally, is to see ahead,” and we need to be so oriented, living prudently (like ants, not grasshoppers).  But our provision for hard times, or for a long journey, is based on experience and common sense, not assumptions about a distant future.

Berry doesn’t consider what a trap – a tender trap of comfortable circumstances, or a vicious circle formed by self-destructive habits – the present can be.  He challenges us to be clear-eyed, not self-indulgent, not defenders of a place in the status quo: “all we can do to prepare rightly for tomorrow is to do the right thing today.”

For a better understanding of what Wendell Berry regards as ‘the right thing,’ I’ll urge you to consult the current issue of YES!, where you’ll find several other items pertinent to our present, and to a future that’s already being provided for.

* * *

The series of ‘Listening Sessions’ that took place in City Hall over the past few weeks left me feeling that we’re off to a good start in the Comp Plan update process.  I was present for five of the six sessions.  The comments at my tables didn’t all offer sweetness and light: we heard from critics of the whole idea that Bainbridge Island is obliged to participate in ‘growth management,’ and from individuals who have been frustrated in their past dealings with City Hall.  In general, though, I found the participants ready with good ideas and eager to come to grips with the issues, large and small, inherent in the Comp Plan update process.

In the first stages of planning for the update, a commitment was made to include the predictable impacts of climate change in our revision and implementation of the Comp Plan.  I found it regrettable, therefore, that the questions prepared to prompt and guide discussions didn’t pursue that theme.  In retrospect, though, and in line with Wendell Berry’s emphasis on inhabiting the present and the place where we actually live, I would say that the participants were doing “the right thing today.”

A passing comment in the session on Monday morning, March 2nd, remains resonant for me.  It was a simple statement: “This is everybody’s problem.”  What that specific problem was, I don’t recall.  It doesn’t matter; I felt the response was not only apt in that instance, but expressive of an attitude widely shared throughout the roomful of separate discussions, time and again.

There will be contentious issues, and we won’t always agree on what should be done in response to a problem, but when something that directly affects a segment of the community (the shortage of reasonably priced rental housing, for example) is recognized as everybody’s problem, we’re proving the strength of our social fabric.

To my way of thinking, the Comprehensive Plan is a verbal embodiment of the social contract that holds us together as citizens, in a certain place and time – “where we are alive, where we belong” (to quote Wendell Berry again).  People find different ways of participating in that contract; some may opt out, or feel excluded from the prevalent norms of public life and policy; we may wish the Island was more inclusive, more representative of the full spectrum of humanity; it’s too simple to say we are all one community.  Nevertheless, the pronouns “we” and “us” can be used here sincerely, without make-believe, to include much more than one’s family and close friends.

I think some Islanders are uneasy with the notion that there are, implicit and intangible but still firmly in place, a set of “Island values” to which we are all supposed to subscribe.  I myself feel that uneasiness; I prefer to regard my own values as provisional, always under review, a muddled mixture of pragmatism and idealism.  What our widely shared values are will be discovered and better understood as we go through the update and implementation process.

Do Island values include sustainability, as that too-familiar term is generally understood? (Let’s use the Brundtland Commission’s definition: “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”)  I think that within the listening sessions, attitudes toward development varied dramatically, but people implicitly understood the Brundtland principle and supported it.

One contribution at my table in the last session was a reference to tools for measuring the sustainability of a community.  (This came as if in answer to what I heard in an earlier session: “We need metrics; we need goals in the Comprehensive Plan.”)  I wasn’t familiar with the STAR Community Rating System; I expect that our professional planners know of it.  Perhaps it will be of value as we move further into the update.

(If you’re interested, go to www.starcommunities.org/  The rating system can be downloaded, free of charge – be advised that it’s a document of 132 pages.)

It will take some time to compile and analyze the record of the listening session discussions.  The City’s consultant, Joe Tovar, has referred to the results as a list of “amendments” to the Comp Plan, and it’s my understanding that all of these will be discussed by the Planning Commission, with many occasions for public comment: Kathy Cook has promised that we’ll be very busy through the rest of this year.

Posted in Climate Change, Community, Comprehensive Plan, Environment, Finite Natural Resources, Island values, Place | Tagged , , , | 1 Comment

Riffing on Themes from “The Sixth Extinction”

Jon Quitslund

Elizabeth Kolbert’s book, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, published in 2014 and already available in paperback (New York: Picador, USD $16), has been celebrated among the best books of 2014.  It’s a serious and intellectually daunting work of non-fiction, based on deep research and wide-ranging travels.  Kolbert talked with experts around the world and did some field work herself, exploring the subject of extinctions in the present and in the five previous big die-offs (the first being at the end of the Ordovician period, approximately 443 million years ago).

Since before it was published I’ve been planning to review another book, Naomi Klein’s This Changes Everything, and I’ll make good on that promise as soon as I can, but Kolbert’s book proved to be an irresistible and worthwhile digression.  In their differences and similarities the two books are hugely enlightening.  If you haven’t read either, you might start with The Sixth Extinction, because it may make you more receptive to Klein’s message, which is more radical and urgent than Kolbert’s science-laden narrative.

This won’t be a proper review of The Sixth Extinction, which consists of thirteen chapters, each with a different focus, a new location and another set of intriguing characters.  I’ll deal with only two chapters, V (“Welcome to the Anthropocene”) and XII (“The Madness Gene”), both of which moved me to deep thoughts about human nature and the dynamics of the culture that our kind have created during the millennia of prehistory and in the accelerating pace of recent centuries.

The main character in Chapter V is Jan Zalasiewicz, a geologist (more specifically a stratigrapher, an interpreter of ancient geological strata and the traces they preserve of life-forms and events deep in the earth’s past).  He has studied the Ordovician extinction, in which 85% of marine species died off, and recently his focus shifted to the latest geological epoch, the Anthropocene – the world we humans, in historical time, inhabit and dominate.

Kolbert cites a number of other geologists who are interested in making a clear distinction between the present epoch and the Holocene (“wholly new”) epoch, dated from the end of the last ice age approximately twelve thousand years ago.  The rationale for distinguishing the Anthropocene from the long post-glacial epoch arose from a recognition of profound changes in the earth’s surface, its atmospheric envelope, and the species our globe supports, all of which modern humans, accidentally or on purpose, have altered drastically.

Can we (the wealthiest, best educated, most powerful and technically savvy creatures ever to walk the earth) take responsibility for what we have done – and what we continue, rather heedlessly, to do?

According to Kolbert, the Dutch chemist Paul Crutzen, who won a Nobel prize for discovering the causes of the ozone hole, was the first to publicize the full spectrum of “geologic-scale changes” that are “anthropogenic” (caused by human activity).  The most significant of these changes, due to its long-term ripple effects, has been alteration of the atmosphere.  “Owing to a combination of fossil fuel combustion and deforestation, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air has risen by forty percent over the last two centuries, while the concentration of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas, has more than doubled.”

Starting far back in prehistory, humans have hunted many species out of existence, and it may be within our power now, through a cascade of environmental impacts, to cause a die-off that will not only decimate biological diversity around the globe, but have a profound effect on the food chain we now take for granted.

Is it also within our power to reverse these trends?

Kolbert’s book raises this question, not blatantly but in many subtle ways, and the fact that neither she nor the scientists she reports upon have an answer only makes the book more haunting.

Chapter XII recounts what Kolbert learned on a visit to the Neander Valley, “about twenty miles north of Cologne”: in German it’s das Neandertal, and it was there, in 1856, that bones of the Neanderthal man were first discovered.  “Today the valley is a sort of Paleolithic theme park.”  The ancient Neanderthal branch of the hominid lineage populated a broad territory: “bones have been found as far north as Wales, as far south as Israel, and as far east as the Caucasus,” and they document occupation of Europe “for at least a hundred thousand years.  For the most part, this was a time of cold, with ice sheets covering Scandinavia.”

The Neanderthal lineage went extinct, according to Kolbert, “roughly thirty thousand years ago,” but not before they had interbred with the invaders of their territory, Homo sapiens – our ancestors.  What caused the demise of the Neanderthals?  “Often climate change is invoked, sometimes in the form of general instability leading up to what’s referred to in earth science circles as the Last Glacial Maximum” – very harsh conditions that overtaxed the ability of that hardy race to adapt and prevail.

Throughout Kolbert’s book, accounting for mass extinctions over millions of years, profound changes in the physical environment are often decisive, but in this case her emphasis falls on the human factor: “Modern humans arrived in Europe around forty thousand years ago, and again and again, the archaeological record shows, as soon as they made their way to a region where Neanderthals were living, the Neanderthals in that region disappeared.”

Neanderthals and the more modern humans who presided over their demise were similar enough, genetically, to permit interbreeding (most of us contain somewhere between 1 and 4% of Neanderthal genetic material), but the invading and eventually triumphant humans carried DNA that provided them with superior adaptive abilities.

The part of this chapter that most intrigued me was her conversation with the evolutionary geneticist Svante Paabo (umlaut the a’s in that last name to get it right) about the difference between archaic humans and Homo sapiens: he doesn’t see the superiority of our species as an unmixed blessing.

The archaic humans lived for thousands of years and “spread like many other mammals in the Old World,” hunting and gathering, stopping at the water’s edge like the animals they hunted when they encountered broad rivers and seas of salt water.  They had the tools that met their needs, and it seems they preferred the familiar to the unknown.

“It’s only fully modern humans who start this thing of venturing out on the ocean where you don’t see land.  Part of that is technology, of course; you have to have ships to do it.  But there is also, I like to think or say, some madness there.  You know?  How many people must have sailed out and vanished on the Pacific before you found Easter Island?  I mean, it’s ridiculous.  And why do you do that?  Is it for the glory?  For immortality?  For curiosity?  And now we go to Mars.  We never stop.”

This “Faustian restlessness,” as Kolbert calls it, is not pure madness, of course: it accounts for much (not all) of our creativity, and our fantastic ability to adapt to strange places and changing times.  But these traits can be dangerous, and maladaptive – worse than ridiculous.  It’s risky to romanticize the Faust figure, to take any proud rebel against the norms of his culture out of the context of tragedy.

We live in a post-heroic time.  That doesn’t mean that heroism is impossible, but we have to hold the old mainsprings of heroism up to scrutiny.  “The difficult we can do at once; the impossible takes a little longer”?  That slogan, which I associate with American efforts during World War II, still sounds good to me, but not as a justification for aggression.  And I’m afraid we’re no longer capable of the discipline and teamwork that got us through World War II.

Generosity, compassion, and self-sacrifice make better foundations for heroic effort than a self-centered desire to prove oneself, to be the best, to risk everything, or to win at all costs.

I’m not going to say anything against curiosity, since more often than not it’s my main motive, or my excuse, for doing this rather than that.  Even idle curiosity has its place, but even I can see that if you’re going out of your way, it’s better to have a purpose, or a problem to solve.

Let’s count the costs of Faustian restlessness and impatience with limits – especially limits on appetites, ambition, and the will to power.  Consider the broad socio-economic forces that shaped the modern world – the Anthropocene – starting in the 17th century: global exploration and trade, colonialism, slavery, wars, growth of cities and frontier settlements, longer life expectancy and more children leading to population growth, with some growth of democratic institutions and state bureaucracies.  Not all bad, and more real progress in store, but more and more trade-offs, exploitation and self-deception.  And so it goes, but forever?  Dream on.

— A few minutes ago, before completing the preceding paragraph, I wrote in my journal: “I spent hours today, having started yesterday, on a post that came to seem quixotic, on the subject of extinctions and the kinks in human nature that drive us to destruction, aiming over the horizon at we know not what.”

That seems like a good place to stop for now, so I can turn to more practical matters.  The next post will be a fresh start, with unfinished business related to the Comprehensive Plan.

Posted in Books, Climate Change, Creativity, Cultural Change, Environment, Evolution, Finite Natural Resources, Reviews | Tagged | Comments Off

A Rediscovered Recipe

Jon Quitslund

In the spirit of Zero Waste, here’s something to do with leftover rice.

At least twenty-five years ago, in an old-fashioned cookbook by Stella Standard called Our Daily Bread, I discovered a simple and delightful recipe for Rice Pancakes, and I can guarantee, “If your family’s tried ‘em / You know you’ve satisfied ‘em.”

The paperback cookbook fell apart and we left it behind in our move west, but several years ago, with some trial and error, I reconstituted the recipe.  Then I lost track of it, and I’ve been doing without.  Well, going through a jumble of clippings and photocopies and jotted-down notes, I recently found a copy, and I had the pleasure of making a batch of pancakes for myself on a recent Sunday morning.

These pancakes are light, with a delicate flavor, and they are filling but not heavy in your tummy.  The recipe will be enough for two or three people with good appetites.

Take one cup of leftover rice, more or less (preferably white basmati), and in a small container, add enough milk to cover (approximately one cup); place in the refrigerator overnight.

The other ingredients are two eggs, sour cream, white flour, baking powder and salt; butter for the frying pan and maple syrup at the table.

Separate the eggs, with whites in a small bowl and yolks in a larger one.  Whisk the yolks briefly, then mix in one cup of sour cream.  Add the rice and milk mixture to the bowl, stirring to break up any clumps of rice.

Sift together ½ cup of flour, 3 teaspoons of baking powder, and ¾ teaspoon of salt; add these dry ingredients to the mixing bowl.  If the batter seems too thin, add a little flour.

While the baking powder begins to work, beat the egg whites to the soft peak stage; fold them in and the batter is ready.

Heat a frying pan or griddle, with a generous amount of butter, and let it get hot, but not enough to brown the butter.  (You want a sizzle when the batter goes in, so the pancake will hold together when you turn it.)

* * *

I’ve seen rice pancake recipes that use ricotta rather than sour cream, and you may want to experiment with that substitution.  And you might use brown rice, for a different flavor and a heartier texture.

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“A Source of Pride”?

Jon Quitslund

At the Planning Commission meeting on December 18, most of our time was devoted to discussion of a new Vision Statement.  We focused on a draft that had been developed by the Steering Committee and City staff.  There will be further discussion at the next Planning Commission meeting  on January 8, and recommendations will go to the City Council for review and action.

The new Vision Statement is quite different from the current one: it doesn’t describe the Island or its inhabitants in any detail, but focuses on values and a shared sense of civic purpose.

The first sentence refers to “the qualities that keep us here” and claims that our vision will sustain those qualities for future generations.  The substance of those qualities is somewhat fleshed out in the four sentences that follow, but a good deal is left to individual interpretation.

I think it is wise to allow generously for diverse opinions on what constitutes and sustains “quality of life” here, but it’s already clear that some citizens would prefer a more prescriptive and down-to-earth description of the future we envision for Bainbridge Island.  Few citizens were present at the December 18 meeting, but I expect we will have more public comment and give-and-take on January 8.

And this is as it should be.  I don’t think the Planning Commission wants to get tangled in a war of words before we even begin to talk about the substantive elements of the Comp Plan, but consensus on principles can’t be produced easily, by dictation or sleight of hand.

Here is the last sentence in the proposed Vision: “We work to make the relationship between each citizen and the Island a source of pride.”  Is “pride” the right word, ‘le mot juste’?  I tried substituting “satisfaction,” but decided that it’s a lack-luster word in this context.  Pride sounds good to me if, as proposed, it arises from a personal connection to the place we share.  I’m wary of the kind of pride that insists on imposing a reckless will on the land, pursuing a private vision.

I like the fact that the Vision ends by evoking a relationship at the individual level – “between each citizen and their Island” is how I’d put it. Each of us, based on our interests and experience, could describe a different relationship to the place and its people; the differences could all be arrayed in a spectrum, with many common elements.

It’s appropriate and enjoyable, I think, to work communally in support of a generally shared sense of pride in the place where we live.  There’s an underside to the sentiment of pride, of course: belief that Bainbridge is an exceptional or “special” place can lead to a hoity-toity attitude, or to an unrealistic fear of changes that might threaten our precious quality of life.

How do we reconcile a vision of sustainable quality of life with the sorts of growth and change we will face in the next two or three decades?  Nobody has a good answer to that question yet, but it should be on our minds throughout the long enterprise of our Comp Plan update.

Here’s the second sentence of the proposed Vision: “We address growth and change, mindful of the limits and the possibilities of our Island geography and environment.”  That’s a sound statement, and it’s in its proper place.  I have proposed some revisions that make the sentence more elaborate and descriptive, and we’ll see if they are regarded as improvements.  The key phrase is “mindful of the limits and the possibilities”: striking a balance, responsive to the place where we find ourselves, won’t be easy, but it’s necessary.

Posted in Community, Comprehensive Plan, Cooperation, Environment, Finite Natural Resources, Individuality, Island values, Place | Comments Off

‘Visioning’ and the Vision Statement in Our Comprehensive Plan

‘Visioning’ and the Vision Statement in Our Comprehensive Plan

Jon Quitslund

In two workshops on Nov. 12 and 17, I took part in discussions of the ‘Vision Statement’ that serves as a preamble to our current Comprehensive Plan.  The workshops covered other ground as well, and did so very constructively.  In this post, after some broad comments, I will focus on the first paragraph of the vision statement, which I think should be radically re-thought.

Looking back on the two meetings, several things stand out in my memory.  Both workshops drew capacity crowds, and a range of viewpoints were represented in the group discussions at separate tables.  The current Vision Statement was regarded critically, as a description that now seems dated and incomplete.

The most interesting general critique that I heard was this: Present what matters most to us in one paragraph, then describe strategies for bringing that imagined future into being.  I heard a good deal of impatience with rosy descriptions of the way things are, and with the litany of “should” and “should not” statements that only remind us how little leverage resides in the Comprehensive Plan.

Here is the first paragraph, from which I’ll excerpt some passages for discussion:

Bainbridge Island is a cohesive community with a distinctive urban center and individual settlements. Winslow is the heart of the Island. It is the place where all residents come to transact daily commerce and to meet for social activities. Its vibrant, pedestrian-oriented core should be enhanced as a center for the Island’s commercial activity, a common area or center where the local community can meet.  The neighborhood service centers of Rolling Bay, Island Center, and Lynwood Center offer small-scale commercial and service activity outside Winslow. These areas would remain much as they are, with some in-fill development.

I have several problems with this description of our population and the way we live together.  Are we, the citizens of Bainbridge Island, a cohesive community?  I don’t think so; I don’t think we ever were.  In saying this, I’m not complaining; I don’t feel a lack of cohesion, only an awareness of complexity in our cultural fabric.

I’ve always felt that ours is not one community, but many cliques and affinity groups, sometimes at odds but mostly maintaining a respectful distance from others, claiming freedom to pursue different goals, and resentful when they are imposed upon by people unlike themselves.

However, there’s a strong ‘sense of place’ that our diverse and dispersed population enjoys, and that sense brings us together to protect the common good – although people may differ vehemently in their definition of it.  The whole island is more than the sum of its parts, and it’s the place, not the people, that can be called cohesive.

Winslow is the heart of the Island.  This is true, and more true today than when the Vision Statement was first composed.  (I don’t know if these words go back to 1994, or to the update in 2004.)  But some of what follows in the paragraph, describing Winslow’s importance, strikes me as blather and special pleading.

Its vibrant, pedestrian-oriented core should be enhanced.  Well, now it has been enhanced in several ways, and further improvements are going forward, although many downtown merchants are still struggling, and the perennial parking problem in the pedestrian-oriented core has yet to be solved.  So Winslow still needs work.

The paragraph ends with two sentences about the neighborhood service centers, and I want to see the demeaning term service dropped.  Each of the three neighborhood centers is a different place, and they don’t possess an equal potential for commercial and residential growth, but each is an attractive hub not only for neighbors, but for people living some distance away.

Should the neighborhood centers remain much as they are for the next ten or twenty years?  Certainly not.  Only Island Center has remained much as it was in 2004.

I expect some serious sub-area planning to take place in the context of this Comp Plan update.  Perhaps pocket-size mixed-use zoning could be introduced in other neighborhoods to allow for more gathering places outside of Winslow.  (Recent developments in the Business/Industrial zones have already given Islanders more places to go.)

Historically, Bainbridge Island has been composed of distinct neighborhoods (quaintly called individual settlements in contrast to the distinctive urban center).  That pattern persists today in some parts of the Island, and growth in our population has only increased the importance of neighborhoods and good neighbors.

* * *

I want to return to what was said above about our sense of place, and my statement that it’s the place, not the people of Bainbridge Island, that can be called cohesive.  One thing that brings crowds of people together is a sense that our island’s environmental integrity is continually being compromised, sometimes heedlessly and sometimes by permission of the authorities.  If only we could all agree to live within the limits defined by our physical environment . . . but cultural and economic imperatives pull in a different direction.

The “should” and “should not” statements running through our current Vision Statement express an earnest desire to protect and preserve our sense of place – but by what means?  There, I believe, our vision needs to be clearer.  We, the resolute defenders of ‘Island values,’ tend to dwell on threats posed by our adversaries, those unreliable ‘Other People,’ when we could advance a more positive agenda, assuming responsibility for managing change.

During the visioning workshops we were challenged to imagine the changes our island – the place and the people – will face in the decades ahead.  Climate change will bring on many other changes, predictable but still unknowable; increases in population throughout the Northwest will be, I’m sure, one of the consequences of worsening conditions elsewhere.

In the workshops, we began to talk about adaptive strategies, and those conversations will continue, involving more people and going deeper, gathering information on which to base goals and policies.

Can the sense of place that is meaningful today provide a baseline and guide us as we look ahead?  I believe so, if we allow that some features of the place will change, even radically, as they have changed in the past.  Is there some better compass than our sense of what this place provides, and what it asks of us?  If so, tell me about it.

I’m going to propose – you’ve seen this coming, haven’t you? – a radical revision of the Vision Statement, making it less about us and our fears and wishes, and more about the place where we are temporary inhabitants, stewards of what was germinating or already flourishing when we, or our parents perhaps, settled here.

Let’s begin by describing where Bainbridge Island is, and what our position in Puget Sound means to us: proximity to Seattle, with the Cascades and Mt. Rainier visible in good weather and a short drive away; proximity also to communities and shopping on the Kitsap Peninsula, with the Olympics and several attractive towns not much further away.

But there’s a catch: with access to all that surrounds us, and an earning and spending population that depends on that access, we must also adjust our ambitions to living mindfully, within our island’s limited resources of land, water, and air.  And another catch: we’re connected to both sides of the Puget Sound region by two-way streets, and we don’t control the traffic.

After acknowledging that our location provides both advantages and problems, we could describe the physical geography of the Island itself, with its miles of shoreline (most of it privately owned); its hilly terrain, streams and wetlands, forests and open space (with many acres publicly owned or in conservancy); its beaches, and several harbors that accommodate boating.

Then, and only then, this version of the Vision Statement would describe the built environment, commercial and cultural activities, and the evolving demographic characteristics of Bainbridge Island.

* * *

To some readers, surely, it will appear that I am advancing environmental interests and neglecting people, whose well-being is much more important.  On the contrary, I think I am only providing a sound framework for long-range planning and community development.  I’ve left to someone else, or to another occasion, the thinking through of the last part of the Vision that I outlined in the brief paragraph immediately above: it may be the most important part, and at this point I don’t know enough to complete it.

Let’s agree at this point, though, that in the decades ahead, land use planning will be very different, and more demanding, than it has been in the past.  As our population increases and the land available for development diminishes, environmental impacts become more significant.  Minimizing impacts by good design and best practices becomes essential.


Posted in Climate Change, Community, Comprehensive Plan, Environment, Finite Natural Resources, Housing, Island values, Long range planning, Mobiity, Place, Shorelines, Stewardship, Transportation | Comments Off

13th Annual Environmental Conference, Nov. 15

“The Future of Trees on Bainbridge Island”

Jon Quitslund

The Association of Bainbridge Communities, with Sustainable Bainbridge as a co-sponsor, has scheduled this year’s event for Saturday, November 15th, from 1:00 to 5:00 p. m. in the Waterfront Park Community Center.

It’s a timely event, with potential to make a difference in policies being developed for Winslow, and in response to the different problems and opportunities we face in other parts of the Island.

The organizers have assembled a great panel of experts – people to learn from and to work with as we build a consensus around some overdue changes in policies related to “significant” trees, “heritage” trees, the tree canopy that provides aesthetic and other benefits on our streets and in our parks, the trees and other vegetation in rights-of-way along our roads, and the forested areas that still flourish in many parts of the Island.

The first featured speakers are a couple of Island treasures.  Dr. Kathy Wolf, who teaches in the UW School of Forestry, is a behavioral scientist and an authority on the psycho-social benefits of urban forest environments.  Dr. Olaf Ribeiro is not only an internationally recognized plant pathologist, expert in all aspects of silviculture; he has deep knowledge of the great variety of rare and remarkable trees that coexist with us on Bainbridge Island, and he has been persistent and passionate in his efforts to document, celebrate, and protect them.

We will also hear from two professionals visiting from Seattle.  Ben Thompson, an urban forestry specialist with the state Department of Natural Resources, will describe “Essential Elements of a Tree Ordinance,” and Nolan Rundquist, the official City Arborist for Seattle, will speak on Seattle’s efforts to retain and protect trees throughout the city.

The town of Langley on Whidbey Island recently enacted an ordinance to protect trees, and two individuals involved in that effort, Steve Erickson and Marianne Edain (members of the Whidbey Environmental Action Network), will speak from their experience.  The Langley ordinance may be a model we can adapt as we revise our Municipal Code.

I have been one of two members of the Planning Commission on an Ad Hoc Committee, along with three members of the City Council, charged with revising the Interim Tree Ordinance and other chapters of the Municipal Code pertaining to trees and forested properties in our community.

I will join Ben Thompson, Steve Erickson, and Marianne Edain for a panel discussion of the purposes to be served by tree ordinances and the issues that have to be considered in developing them.

The conference will conclude with break-out sessions, enabling all participants to interact with the experts and explore the ways that citizens can become involved in protecting trees on Bainbridge Island.

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Public Participation in the Comprehensive Plan Update

Jon Quitslund

I began this post early in October, but my writing always proceeds slowly, subject to interruptions – by the world around me if not by my own second thoughts and lapses of concentration.  And this time I fell deep into a ‘writer’s block’ predicament.

I turned away to avoid the pain; eventually, I discovered that some things I had written were not true, and other facts had emerged that I should report upon.

I hope that what I’m posting now is both true and useful.

The Planning Commission meeting on October 1 was entirely devoted to discussion of the Public Participation Program, which will serve as the basic framework for the review and update of our Comprehensive Plan.  The Program describes some of the occasions and methods by which citizens can obtain information and make their own contributions to the charter for our community’s future.

A Steering Committee, consisting of three Council members (Blair, Blossom, and Tollefsen) and three members of the Planning Commission (Gale, Lewars, and Pearl), working with COBI staff, developed a draft of the Program, which was first discussed in a Planning Commission meeting on September 11.

After discussion at the October 1 meeting, the six Planning Commissioners present were unanimous in recommending to the City Council that they formally adopt the Program.  The Council discussed the Program on October 21; they are scheduled to complete their review and vote on the enabling resolution on October 28.

In the discussion of the Public Participation Program on September 11, there was strong interest in adding citizens unaffiliated with COBI to the Steering Committee, and that desire was expressed again at the second meeting.

The Steering Committee is responsible for guiding the update process, keeping track of all written and oral comments and making recommendations on the scope of the project, both in the elements of the Comprehensive Plan and with regard to its implementation in the Municipal Code.

I was persuaded that adding members to the Steering Committee would impact its efficiency.  All of the Committee’s meetings will be public, and citizens can both observe and contribute to discussions.  I’m aware that some citizens continue to feel that the update process is being too tightly managed from within COBI, and I’m hoping that such attitudes will dissipate over time.

One thing I’m sure of: the update process is not going to be an exercise in steering around problems, shrugging off criticism, and preserving the status quo for the benefit of City staff and business as usual.

The involvement of citizens with specific interests and expertise will be crucial to the success of the update project when several Ad Hoc Committees are formed to draft changes to the various elements of the Comprehensive Plan and its implementation in the Municipal Code.  Much of the real work of the update, as I envision it, will take shape in those committees, during the Winter and Spring months of 2015.

The first steps in deliberation on the scope and substance of the update will be taken soon, in a pair of meetings in the Council chambers: first in the evening, 6 to 9:30 on Nov. 12, and then in the daytime, 10 to 1:30 on Nov. 17.  These meetings will be important opportunities for citizens to share their visions of our community’s present circumstances and our future.  Members of the Planning Commission and the City Council will be present and involved in small-group breakout sessions; I hope that the broad spectrum of our citizenry, and especially those who are seldom seen in City Hall, will turn out for these meetings.

As I understand it, reference points for the Nov. 12th and 17th meetings will come from two key pieces of the current Comprehensive Plan: the Vision Statement and the Five Overriding Principles That Guide the Plan.  (These are two pages that preface the Comp Plan’s Introduction; they can be accessed easily on the Navigate Bainbridge page of the City website.)

Are these still accurate and adequate descriptions of our community’s values and our ‘sense of place’?  Should anything be added to the vision or the principles?  Do we need to correct course in specific areas to be more consistent with our ideals?

Discussion and, perhaps, redefinition of the community’s vision and principles will set the stage for six subsequent meetings of a different sort, beginning in December and extending through March.  These will be “scoping/listening forums”: Planning Commission and Council members will be present primarily to listen to citizens – and citizens, presumably, will be speaking and listening to one another, exploring differences and common ground.

* * *

Are you familiar with COBI’s Priority Based Budgeting system?  It’s a new way of thinking about the City’s biannual budget, adopted in the Spring of this year, and it looks like an excellent set of tools for planning and funding the City’s necessary and discretionary operations.  (For more information, go to the City website: http://www.bainbridgewa.gov/633/Priority-Based-Budgeting.)

There’s a reason for my digression: I’ve mentioned COBI’s budgeting system because its key elements will be used to organize the six public forums.  In a graphic display that you will find on the COBI website, the City’s services are organized in six categories: Safe City; Healthy and Attractive Community; Green, Well-Planned Community; Vibrant Economy; Reliable Infrastructure & Connected Mobility; and Good Governance.

Starting out clueless about this new budgeting system, I was somewhat dubious about its relevance to the update process: I thought it would add an extra layer of complexity to a project that is already awfully complicated.

I still have a lot to learn, but I can now see several advantages to linking our revision of the Comprehensive Plan to the budgeting system.  As different as they are, both the Comp Plan and the budget framework are toolkits for planning and managing our civic life; each ought to be consistent with the other.  Both are asset maps, describing what goes on in our community, and both also describe goals and aspirations – “the way it’s s’posed to be.”

Using the budgeting system as a frame of reference for re-thinking the Comprehensive Plan may help to bring our ideas and our language down to earth, focused primarily upon the City’s core responsibilities.  (Pragmatism is, I hope, one of the community values that will be exhibited throughout this project.)  The update process could also test the will and ability of our City Council and the COBI staff to deliver on the commitments that the budgeting system lays out.

* * *

I’ve now said more than once that throughout the long update process, the entire COBI apparatus (the City Manager and administrative staff, the Council, and the Planning Commission) will be on trial in the eyes of the general public.  I say that not to be cranky, but in a good way, as a true believer in good governance and long range planning.

As you’ll see if you visit the City’s website and its description of Priority Based Budgeting, the page describing Good Governance explains what that shiny concept means in an array of specific commitments.  One of them reads, “Supports decision-making with timely and accurate short-term and long-range analysis that enhances vision and planning.”

Another says that the City “fosters trust and transparency by ensuring accountability, efficiency, integrity, innovation and best practices in all operations.”

These commitments pertain directly to what’s involved – and what’s at stake – in the Comprehensive Plan update.  These are promises to keep.

* * *

You must know that the update of our Comprehensive Plan (and those of other communities across the state) is required by law in accordance with the Growth Management Act.  I expect that you’ve also heard that Bainbridge Island is required to plan for increases in our population over the coming decades.

The prospect of population growth is a cause for alarm here, and rightly so.  Some citizens have reacted angrily, finding fault with the GMA and saying that a ‘quota’ for growth can’t legitimately be applied to us.  It is widely believed that the Growth Management Act is part of a state-level strategy to promote growth, imposing population increases, willy-nilly, on communities such as ours.

This is an unfortunate misunderstanding.  There’s a big difference between promoting growth, within limits or without, and managing growth – planning for what is likely to happen and accommodating future needs with the necessary infrastructure and development standards.

The Puget Sound Regional Council, based in Seattle, is responsible for guiding counties and cities as they update Comprehensive Plans and respond to regional projections of growth in population and employment opportunities.

If you are interested in gaining a better understanding of these issues, I recommend consulting the PSRC’s multi-part study, VISION 2040, which is available online.  I plan to write about the study and its relevance to our project in my next post, some time before the end of November.

Posted in Community, Comprehensive Plan, Island values, Long range planning, Place | Comments Off

Withdrawing, Reflecting, Looking Forward

Jon Quitslund

Life is sweet, life is good!  Toby and I are spending September on the Big Island, Hawaii.  It’s our fourth year of enjoying a house-sitting opportunity in Waimea, a town in the ranch and farming country, upland from the Kohala Coast.

Our main responsibility to the house owners is care for a big dog.  He’s getting up in years, grizzled in the muzzle and slowing down, but still as friendly as ever and eager to play or be petted.

My life is regulated somewhat by Samu’s needs; he’s a very early riser.  That dovetails with another consideration: conditions for snorkeling among the reef fish are best in the early morning, before the surface gets choppy and wave action churns up the water, reducing visibility.

This past Sunday I got to Puako and its ancient ‘birthing place’ (a revered site, and a favorite of local swimmers and scuba divers) before 8: nobody around, and everything calm, the water smooth and welcoming.  Colorful reef fish are plentiful as soon as you enter the shallows.

I’m not an athletic swimmer, but with fins and a mask I can swim as long as I like.  I headed offshore to the point where the reef drops off dramatically, then moved along that boundary for a while, seeing nothing rare or dramatic, just enjoying the panorama.  (On my first swim a few days earlier, a handsome young sea turtle glided gracefully across my field of vision.)  It’s marvelous, how the sea bears you up, and how swimming out two hundred yards from shore simplifies your life!

* * *

The broad Pacific’s waters and three time zones separate me from Bainbridge.  Disengagement from responsibilities and the happenings back there feels good, although my mind remains tethered to home and I feel the tugs from time to time.  I can choose what I want to respond to; I’m a free agent.

The Comprehensive Plan update remains on my mind, of course.  I won’t be attending either of the Planning Commission meetings (9/11 and 9/25) at which the draft of a Public Participation Plan will be discussed, but I’ve studied the agenda packet prepared for the first meeting.  I hope there will be large and diverse audiences for both meetings, prepared to learn from what’s discussed and to add their own opinions to the mix.

The Steering Committee of three City Council and three Planning Commission members have developed a process by which citizens can participate in the Comp Plan review and revision, along with a tentative schedule for different parts of the complicated (and oh-so-important!) project.

Our community as it is now (fragmented, distrustful, anxious, and impatient for changes in the status quo) stands to benefit greatly from the update process, and if we all rise to the challenge before us, we’ll have not only a more accurate and useful Comprehensive Plan, but development regulations in the Municipal Code that support and implement its vision.

In its DRAFT form, the Public Participation Plan provides numerous public occasions for people to weigh in on various issues that will be considered as the update takes shape.  Some issues have already been identified, and many more will emerge.  No doubt some will be controversial; both God and the devil are in the details.

I had thought that there might be defined roles for citizens in various ‘work groups’: that’s how the first Comp Plan was created, and selected citizen volunteers have played policy-drafting roles in several other planning and regulatory projects, most recently for the SMP update.

This time around, the Steering Committee has proposed something different.  If the Participation Plan works as intended, more citizens from the full spectrum of our community will be informed, engaged, and contributing their ideas over the course of this long process.

The Participation Plan identifies the Planning Commission as ‘the steward of the Comprehensive Plan,’ and gives its seven members responsibility for facilitating ‘public listening sessions to hear citizen input on the scope of the update.’

On the basis of these sessions (also called ‘scoping forums’), the Planning Commission will draft amendments to the Comprehensive Plan and a list of potential changes to the Municipal Code.  As usual, public hearings will be held on all such amendments before they are voted on and forwarded as recommendations to the City Council.

Throughout the process, the City Council and the Planning Commission will be working together, sometimes hand in glove.  The first phase of the review and update process, beginning in October and extending into December, will involve joint meetings of the Council and the Commission ‘to review and consider changes to the overarching Comprensive Plan Vision and Principles.’  (The reference here is to two pages from the Introduction to the current Comp Plan, all of which is available on the COBI website: check it out.)  Those meetings will, of course, provide ample opportunities for public comment.

I expect that some concerned citizens will read what I’ve just written, or the more detailed and authoritative description of what’s being proposed on the COBI website (go to the agenda for the 9/11 Planning Commission meeting), and will see the draft Participation Plan as just another instance of COBI’s top-down style of management, frustrating the people’s will.

That’s a risk that the Steering Committee took.  I think they did so bravely, and wisely, but they have some explaining to do.

I’m speaking only for myself here, but I feel sure that everyone engaged in the Comp Plan update in their official capacity – Planning Commission and City Council members, plus the City Manager and his staff, the Planning and Public Works Directors and their staffs, plus the City Attorney – knows that they are on trial and answerable to citizens.

We can’t afford to screw up this project.  It has to be well managed; the process has to be fair to all concerned; the updated Comprehensive Plan has to be realistic, forward-looking, coherent, and convincing; the project won’t be complete until the Plan’s principles are implemented in development regulations.

* * *

I’ve made several different attempts at a rousing conclusion to this post, and none of them seem right.  I’ll just accept my distance from the issues and activities there on Bainbridge, and see what develops out of this month’s meetings, planning to play an active role in October’s joint sessions of the Council and the Planning Commission.

Posted in Community, Comprehensive Plan, Cooperation, Island values | Comments Off

Navigating Bainbridge: Planning for the Comp Plan Update

Jon Quitslund

In the evening on July 22nd, the City of Bainbridge Island put on a program to explain the purpose and scope of the revision of our Comprehensive Plan, which will begin in earnest at the end of the Summer.

Navigate Bainbridge: Charting Our Future Together was designed to enlist citizen participants in the two-year update process.  Lots of volunteers will be needed to work with City staff, members of the Planning Commission, and representatives of other advisory groups and civic organizations.

I had hoped to see a larger turnout, but the audience included many people I didn’t know, and that’s always a good sign.  Even when we disagree, the diversity of interests and talents in our community is our source of vitality.  Questions during the Q & A period covered a wide spectrum, dealing both with the process and opportunities for citizen involvement, and with issues that need to be addressed.

The centerpiece of the program was a presentation by Joseph Tovar, a city planning professional with deep experience at the state level with growth management principles, and in city governments with Comprehensive Plans and their implementation.

What Mr. Tovar said laid to rest some concerns that have been on my mind for months.  He described the work ahead of us as two-fold.

First, there’s work to do on the Comprehensive Plan, in the light of fresh information and current concerns.  Another set of tasks arises from the need for consistency between the Comp Plan and the Municipal Code – the regulations by which the norms and goals of the Plan are implemented.

Mr. Tovar proposed that while we review and revise the Comp Plan, we should also undertake, on a parallel track, an audit of the Municipal Code; he spoke of a ‘parking lot’ for Code amendments that will be considered after the Comp Plan has been updated.

Following this advice will add complexity and some controversy to an already daunting challenge, but in crucial portions of the Code (pertaining especially to development and growth management), we have “pre-existing conditions” that hinder the implementation of the current Comprehensive Plan’s vision.

The Comp Plan and the Code serve different purposes and they can’t be perfectly consistent, but both will be improved if they are brought closer into alignment.

* * *

As boaters know, to navigate you need accurate charts, and familiarity with the information they contain.  Without such knowledge, even in fair weather you may run aground.  The Comprehensive Plan is not a chart but a charter – and not a charter boat on which, for a sum of money, you’ll be taken for a carefree cruise.

Nor is the Comprehensive Plan much like a charter granted to corporations by royal authority or a state agency, conferring certain rights and privileges.  Rather, it is an agreement entered into by citizens and their government (elected representatives, salaried employees, and volunteer members of advisory boards and commissions).

Our Comprehensive Plan enacts at the local level the principles and objectives of Washington state’s Growth Management Act, which requires that we plan for and maintain an infrastructure (systems for mobility, commerce, water, electricity, waste disposal, parks, schools, etc.) consistent with our population.  (Population throughout our region is expected to grow in the next twenty years and beyond: I’ll say more about this below.)

The facts about our population, community life, and physical infrastructure make up much of the Comp Plan’s bulk, and now, twenty years since the first plan was completed, that information needs to be brought up to date and reinterpreted, as the basis for planning in the years ahead.

To the facts of community life as we each experience them, we join aspirations and concerns about the future of Bainbridge Island.  Of the things that we value most, what seems to be at risk?  What positive trends should be encouraged, by citizens’ efforts and by changes in public policies?  What developments can be managed, and what will we have to put up with or adapt to?

I don’t expect that reform of City government will be a topic for discussion and decisions during the Comp Plan update, but staff in the Public Works and Planning departments will be involved in managing the whole project, and major changes in the Plan and its implementation will entail changes in the missions of those departments.

Land use policies and population growth will be important and difficult topics for discussion during the update: somebody gave 23,300 as our present population, and 28,000 as the estimate for twenty years from now.  I don’t know whether that estimate takes into account the population shifts and economic impacts resulting from climate change: 28,000 might be a lowball figure.

You won’t need to learn how to breathe under water, but get ready to ponder the imponderable.

The island’s “carrying capacity” is currently a Rumsfeldian “known unknown.”  I trust that before we’re done, people will know better how to talk about our capacity for growth, and also about the prudent use of natural resources that support our quality of life.

To conclude, let me repeat here what I’ve said before: this project, for as long as it takes and as difficult as it may be at times, offers an incomparable opportunity for all the participants to deepen their understanding of this place and its people.

Posted in Climate Change, Community, Comprehensive Plan, Cooperation, Cultural Change, Demographic Groups, Environment, Finite Natural Resources, Island values, People, Place, Stewardship, Values | Comments Off

Further Thoughts on Comprehensive Plan Principles

Jon Quitslund

When I posted my two-part essay on the current Comp Plan’s Overriding Principles, I thought I might follow it up when I had some reactions from readers.  A couple of members of the City Council thanked me for sending the essay to them, but as a group the Council seems still to be unready to discuss policy directives.  Ron Peltier, the leader of Islanders for Responsible Development, took the trouble to respond to several passages, and what he wrote has prompted me to think again about some of the principles that will, I hope, guide our update of the Comp Plan – and, in due time, the other planning and regulatory instruments that need to be aligned with it.

Ron Peltier and I differ in some respects, but our differences are amicable; there’s a good deal of common ground between us.  He has helped me to clarify my own thinking, and on one important point, to correct a mistaken interpretation of the Comp Plan’s language.

Commenting on what I said in Part I of the essay about Islanders’ attitudes toward development, Ron calls me out for “trivializing” concerns that he considers legitimate.  I agree with him that some specific proposals for development should be contested, even protested, and some of the forces driving development run counter to the common good.

All development proposals should be carefully examined, in accordance with the Municipal Code and other applicable regulations, including the Comprehensive Plan: that’s the rule that the City’s planners are sworn to abide by.  In my view they take their responsibilities seriously, sometimes facing resistance from people who think the rules shouldn’t apply to them.  Some of the decisions made in City Hall are questionable, but I don’t find fault with the staff so much as with the regulations they are obliged to administer.

The biggest problems arise when technical details in the Municipal Code are out of synch with the Code’s (and the Comp Plan’s) description of goals and purposes.  I guess we shouldn’t be surprised when the letter of the law is insisted upon, not the spirit: it’s interpretations of the technicalities that are contested in court.

We have to fix inconsistencies, and require property owners (and the people who work for them) to pay more attention to the goals and purposes at the heart of our regulations.

The Comp Plan’s fifth principle calls for maintaining finite “environmental resources . . . at a sustainable level.”  I said that “as a concept, sustainability is nebulous,” and Ron objects that I gave away too much ground to the opposition – people whose “aspirations are . . . at odds with the notion of limits and preservation of environmental capital for the benefit of future generations.”  He has a point: we need to confront and resist the reckless pursuit of short-term profits, and we need to put sustainability on a solid foundation.

The problem, as I see it, is that it’s much easier to see what’s not sustainable than to establish fundamental sustainable practices, in a culture and a built environment that will support them, that will also disallow or discourage non-sustainable lifestyles.  That’s our real work; it’s going to take a long time, and if the word “nebulous” stands in the way of clarity about what needs to be done, let’s dispose of it, and get on with building consensus around a specific agenda.

I started Part II of my essay with comments on Principle 4: “The costs and benefits to property owners should be considered in making land use decisions.”  My first point was that this principle “focuses on the interests of private property owners” in a way that could be in conflict with Principle 5, which mandates conservation of environmental resources.

Ron’s comment on this point is most welcome.  He observes, and I agree, that the property owners affected by land use decisions are not only the individuals applying for permits to clear land, to build, or to modify structures or uses on their private property.  The costs and benefits to neighbors, and ultimately to a broader community, must also be considered.

Seen in this light, Principle 4 establishes a context in which all individual interests (specifically, “costs and benefits”) have to be weighed carefully.  (Too often, I think, “property rights” are claimed, and protected or promoted in regulations, as if they belonged to individuals in isolation from others.)

In several other comments, Ron expresses a strong desire to place limits on the growth of the island’s population, and to do so “when we can still preserve the quality and character of the island.”  I agree with him that a number of factors (water in our aquifers being the most discussed) impose limits on our ‘carrying capacity.’

While I’m a great believer in living within limits, I’m also aware that our ability to predict the future and control human behavior is very limited.

Some of the information needed for modeling growth and capacity over the decades ahead is already available, but we need more data, and better analysis of the many variables.  Models need to be brought up to date, fleshed out, critiqued, and made widely available, to provide a frame of reference for all the discussions of growth management that will occur, more or less constructively, in the course of the Comp Plan update.

It has been decided that the regional and local effects of climate change have to be considered in all aspects of the update: what can’t be avoided, we must adapt to.  This decision is bound to make a big difference in the scope and focus of the update process.

While Ron feels that placing limits on growth is already justified, he expresses doubt that the City Council and COBI staff are willing and able to do what needs to be done.  I’m approaching the tasks ahead in a more positive spirit, believing that anyone who wants to be respected and welcomed as a participant in the hard work and decision-making must first model respect for the sincerity of other participants.

The members of the City Council aren’t all on the same page regarding the principles and purposes driving the Comp Plan update, and that’s a good thing, because there are diverse, and sometimes conflicting, ideas and interests that have to be taken into account.

It’s going to be difficult for staff of the Planning and Public Works departments to manage the update process.  The whole project is not supposed to be “staff-driven,” but COBI staff, who have expert knowledge and ultimate responsibility for the Comprehensive Plan’s effectiveness, need to be fully engaged in the process, keeping it on track, more or less on schedule.  There will be a great deal of factual information and communication to be routed and recorded.  I don’t see how everything can be managed effectively without additional staff.

I am eagerly anticipating “Comprehensive Plan 101,” the public meeting at the High School on Tuesday evening, July 22nd, which will formally begin the project.


Posted in Climate Change, Community, Comprehensive Plan, Cooperation, Cultural Change, Economy, Environment, Finite Natural Resources, Island values, Place, Property Rights, Values | Comments Off